Overview

儿童1型糖尿病 is a condition in which your child's body no longer produces an important hormone (insulin). 你的孩子需要胰岛素才能生存, so the missing insulin needs to be replaced with injections or with an insulin pump. 儿童1型糖尿病 used to be known as juvenile diabetes or insulin-dependent diabetes.

The diagnosis of type 1 diabetes in children can be overwhelming, especially in the beginning. Suddenly you and your child — depending on his or her age — must learn how to give injections, 计算碳水化合物,监测血糖.

There's no cure for type 1 diabetes in children, but it can be managed. Advances in blood sugar monitoring and insulin delivery have improved blood sugar management and quality of life for children with type 1 diabetes.

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Symptoms

The signs and symptoms of type 1 diabetes in children usually develop quickly, and may include:

  • 口渴
  • Frequent urination, possibly bed-wetting in a toilet-trained child
  • 极度饥饿
  • 无意的减肥
  • Fatigue
  • 易怒或行为变化
  • Fruity-smelling呼吸

什么时候去看医生

See your child's doctor if you notice any of the signs or symptoms of type 1 diabetes.

Causes

1型糖尿病的确切病因尚不清楚. 但对于大多数1型糖尿病患者来说, the body's immune system — which normally fights harmful bacteria and viruses — mistakenly destroys insulin-producing (islet) cells in the pancreas. Genetics and environmental factors appear to play a role in this process.

Once the islet cells of the pancreas are destroyed, your child produces little or no insulin. Insulin performs the critical job of moving sugar (glucose) from the bloodstream to the body's cells. 当食物被消化时,糖进入血液.

没有足够的胰岛素, 糖在你孩子的血液中积累, where it can cause life-threatening complications if left untreated.

Risk factors

儿童1型糖尿病的危险因素包括:

  • 家族病史. Anyone with a parent or siblings with type 1 diabetes has a slightly increased risk of developing the condition.
  • Genetics. 某些基因表明患1型糖尿病的风险增加.
  • Race. 在美国, type 1 diabetes is more common among white children of non-Hispanic descent than among children of other races.
  • 某些病毒. Exposure to various viruses may trigger the autoimmune destruction of the islet cells.

并发症

1型糖尿病会影响你身体的主要器官. Keeping your blood sugar level close to normal most of the time can dramatically reduce the risk of many complications.

并发症包括:

  • 心脏和血管疾病. Diabetes increases your child's risk of developing conditions such as narrowed blood vessels, 高血压, 心脏病和中风.
  • Nerve damage. Excess sugar can injure the walls of the tiny blood vessels that nourish your child's nerves. 这会导致刺痛、麻木、灼烧或疼痛. Nerve damage usually happens gradually over a long period of time.
  • 肾脏损害. Diabetes can damage the numerous tiny blood vessel clusters that filter waste from your child's blood.
  • Eye damage. Diabetes can damage the blood vessels of the retina, which may lead to vision problems.
  • Osteoporosis. 糖尿病可能导致骨密度低于正常水平, 增加孩子成年后患骨质疏松症的风险.

Prevention

目前还没有预防1型糖尿病的方法, 但这是一个非常活跃的研究领域. 研究人员正在研究:

  • Preventing type 1 diabetes in people who have a high risk of the disease, and recently identified at least one drug that may slow down the development of the condition.
  • Preventing further destruction of the islet cells in people who are newly diagnosed.

Doctors can detect the antibodies associated with type 1 diabetes in children who have a high risk of the disorder. These antibodies can be detected months or even years before the first symptoms of type 1 diabetes appear, but there's currently no known way to slow or prevent the disease when antibodies are found. It's also important to know that not everyone with these antibodies goes on to develop type 1 diabetes.

While there's nothing you could have done to prevent your child's type 1 diabetes, 你可以通过以下方法帮助你的孩子预防并发症:

  • Helping your child maintain good blood sugar control as much as possible
  • Teaching your child the importance of eating a healthy diet and participating in regular physical activity
  • Scheduling regular visits with your child's diabetes doctor and a yearly eye exam beginning no more than five years after the initial diabetes diagnosis or by age 10

Jan. 30, 2020
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  9. 李维斯基等. Special situations in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus. http://www.uptodate.com/contents/search. Accessed Dec. 13, 2019.
  10. 高血糖(高血糖). 美国糖尿病协会. http://www.diabetes.org/diabetes/medication-management/blood-glucose-testing-and-control/hyperglycemia. Accessed Dec. 11, 2019.
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