概述

痛经 (dysmenorrhea) are throbbing or cramping pains in the lower abdomen. Many women have menstrual cramps just before and during their menstrual periods.

For some women, the discomfort is merely annoying. 为他人, menstrual cramps can be severe enough to interfere with everyday activities for a few days every month.

条件 such as endometriosis or uterine fibroids can cause menstrual cramps. Treating the cause is key to reducing the pain. 痛经 that aren't caused by another condition tend to lessen with age and often improve after giving birth.

症状

痛经的症状包括:

  • Throbbing or cramping pain in your lower abdomen that can be intense
  • Pain that starts 1 to 3 days before your period, peaks 24 hours after the onset of your period and subsides in 2 to 3 days
  • 钝痛,持续疼痛
  • Pain that radiates to your lower back and thighs

一些女性还有:

  • 恶心想吐
  • 便溏
  • 头疼
  • 头晕

什么时候去看医生

如果出现以下情况,请咨询医疗保健人员:

  • 痛经 disrupt your life every month
  • 症状逐渐恶化
  • You just started having severe menstrual cramps after age 25

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原因

During your menstrual period, your uterus contracts to help expel its lining. Hormonelike substances (prostaglandins) involved in pain and inflammation trigger the uterine muscle contractions. Higher levels of prostaglandins are associated with more-severe menstrual cramps.

痛经可能由以下原因引起:

  • 子宫内膜异位. Tissue that acts similar to the lining of the uterus grows outside of the uterus, 最常见的是输卵管, 卵巢或骨盆内的组织.
  • 子宫肌瘤. These noncancerous growths in the wall of the uterus can cause pain.
  • 子宫腺肌症. The tissue that lines your uterus begins to grow into the muscular walls of the uterus.
  • 盆腔炎. This infection of the female reproductive organs is usually caused by sexually transmitted bacteria.
  • 宫颈狭窄. 在一些女性身上, the opening of the cervix is small enough to impede menstrual flow, causing a painful increase of pressure within the uterus.

风险因素

You might be at risk of menstrual cramps if:

  • 你还不到30岁
  • You started puberty early, at age 11 or younger
  • You bleed heavily during periods (menorrhagia)
  • You have irregular menstrual bleeding (metrorrhagia)
  • You have a family history of menstrual cramps (dysmenorrhea)
  • 你吸烟

并发症

痛经 don't cause other medical complications, 但是他们会干扰学校, 工作和社会活动.

Certain conditions associated with menstrual cramps can have complications, though. For example, endometriosis can cause fertility problems. 盆腔炎 can scar your fallopian tubes, increasing the risk of a fertilized egg implanting outside of your uterus (ectopic pregnancy).

2022年4月30日
  1. 史密斯RP,等. 痛经 in adult women: Clinical features and diagnosis. http://www.最新式的.com/contents/search. 2020年4月1日访问.
  2. 痛经. 默克手册专业版. http://www.merckmanuals.com/professional/gynecology-and-obstetrics/menstrual-abnormalities/dysmenorrhea#v1062408. 12月访问. 26, 2017.
  3. 史密斯RP,等. 成年女性痛经:治疗. http://www.最新式的.com/contents/search. 2020年4月1日访问.
  4. 常见问题. 妇科问题FAQ046. 痛经:痛经. American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. http://www.服用抗.org/patient-resources/faqs/gynecologic-problems/dysmenorrhea-painful-periods. 2020年4月1日访问.
  5. American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. 委员会第号意见. 760: 痛经 and endometriosis in the adolescent. 产科 & 妇科. 2018; doi:10.1097 / AOG.0000000000002978.
  6. 痛经:概述. PubMedHealth. http://www.ncbi.nlm.国家卫生研究院.gov /书/ NBK279324 /. 2020年4月1日访问.

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