概述

妊娠期糖尿病 is diabetes diagnosed for the first time during pregnancy (gestation). Like other types of diabetes, gestational diabetes affects how your cells use sugar (glucose). 妊娠期糖尿病 原因 high blood sugar that can affect your pregnancy 和 your baby's health.

While any pregnancy complication is concerning, there's good news. Expectant mothers can help control gestational diabetes by eating healthy foods, 锻炼和, 如果有必要的话, 服药. Controlling blood sugar can keep you 和 your baby healthy 和 prevent a difficult delivery.

In women with gestational diabetes, blood sugar usually returns to normal soon after delivery. But if you've had gestational diabetes, you have a higher risk of getting type 2 diabetes. You'll need to be tested for changes in blood sugar more often.

症状

For most women, gestational diabetes doesn't cause noticeable signs or symptoms. Increased thirst 和 more-frequent urination are possible symptoms.

什么时候去看医生

如果可能的话, seek health care early — when you first think about trying to get pregnant — so your doctor can check your risk of gestational diabetes along with your overall wellness. 一旦你怀孕了, your doctor will check you for gestational diabetes as part of your prenatal care.

If you develop gestational diabetes, you may need checkups more often. These are most likely to occur during the last three months of pregnancy, when your doctor will monitor your blood sugar level 和 your baby's health.

原因

研究ers don't yet know why some women get gestational diabetes 和 others don't. Excess weight before pregnancy often plays a role.

Normally, various hormones work to keep your blood sugar levels in check. 但在怀孕期间, 激素水平变化, making it harder for your body to process blood sugar efficiently. This makes your blood sugar rise.

风险因素

Some women have a greater risk of gestational diabetes. 风险因素 for gestational diabetes include the following:

  • Overweight 和 obesity.
  • A lack of physical activity.
  • Previous gestational diabetes or prediabetes.
  • Polycystic ovary syndrome.
  • Diabetes in an immediate family member.
  • Previously delivering a baby weighing more than 9 pounds (4.1公斤).
  • Race — Women who are Black, 拉美裔, American Indian 和 Asian American have a higher risk of developing gestational diabetes.

并发症

妊娠期糖尿病 that's not carefully managed can lead to high blood sugar levels. High blood sugar can cause problems for you 和 your baby, including an increased likelihood of needing a C-section to deliver.

并发症 that may affect your baby

If you have gestational diabetes, your baby may be at increased risk of:

  • Excessive birth weight. Higher than normal blood sugar in mothers can cause their babies to grow too large. Very large babies — those who weigh 9 pounds or more — are more likely to become wedged in the birth canal, have birth injuries or need a C-section birth.
  • Early (preterm) birth. High blood sugar may increase women's risk of early labor 和 delivery before the due date. Or early delivery may be recommended because the baby is large.
  • Serious breathing difficulties. Babies born early to mothers with gestational diabetes may experience respiratory distress syndrome — a condition that makes breathing difficult.
  • Low blood sugar (hypoglycemia). Sometimes babies of mothers with gestational diabetes have low blood sugar (hypoglycemia) shortly after birth. Severe episodes of hypoglycemia may cause seizures in the baby. Prompt feedings 和 sometimes an intravenous glucose solution can return the baby's blood sugar level to normal.
  • Obesity 和 type 2 diabetes later in life. Babies of mothers who have gestational diabetes have a higher risk of developing obesity 和 type 2 diabetes later in life.
  • 死胎. Untreated gestational diabetes can result in a baby's death either before or shortly after birth.

并发症 that may affect you

妊娠期糖尿病 may also increase your risk of:

  • High blood pressure 和 preeclampsia. 妊娠期糖尿病 raises your risk of high blood pressure, as well as preeclampsia — a serious complication of pregnancy that 原因 high blood pressure 和 other symptoms that can threaten the lives of both mother 和 baby.
  • Having a surgical delivery (C-section). You're more likely to have a C-section if you have gestational diabetes.
  • 未来糖尿病. If you have gestational diabetes, you're more likely to get it again during a future pregnancy. You also have a higher risk of type 2 diabetes as you get older.

预防

There are no guarantees when it comes to preventing gestational diabetes — but the more healthy habits you can adopt before pregnancy, 更好的. If you've had gestational diabetes, these healthy choices may also reduce your risk of having it again in future pregnancies or developing type 2 diabetes in the future.

  • 吃健康食品. Choose foods high in fiber 和 low in fat 和 calories. Focus on fruits, vegetables 和 whole grains. Strive for variety to help you achieve your goals without compromising taste or nutrition. 手表的份量.
  • 保持活跃. Exercising before 和 during pregnancy can help protect you from developing gestational diabetes. Aim for 30 minutes of moderate activity on most days of the week. Take a brisk daily walk. 骑自行车. 游泳圈. Short bursts of activity — such as parking further away from the store when you run err和s or taking a short walk break — all add up too.
  • Start pregnancy at a healthy weight. If you're planning to get pregnant, losing extra weight beforeh和 may help you have a healthier pregnancy. Focus on making lasting changes to your eating habits that can help you through pregnancy, such as eating more vegetables 和 fruits.
  • Don't gain more weight than recommended. Gaining some weight during pregnancy is normal 和 healthy. But gaining too much weight too quickly can up your risk of gestational diabetes. Ask your doctor what a reasonable amount of weight gain is for you.

8月. 26, 2020
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  3. 妊娠期糖尿病. National Institute of Diabetes 和 Digestive 和 Kidney 疾病. http://www.的趋势.国家卫生研究院.gov/health-information/diabetes/overview/what-is-diabetes/gestational/all-content. 12月访问. 31, 2019.
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  5. Durnwald C. Diabetes mellitus in pregnancy: Screening 和 diagnosis. http://www.最新式的.com/contents/search. 1月访问. 8, 2020.
  6. American Diabetes Association. St和ards of medical care in diabetes — 2020. 糖尿病护理. 2020; doi:10.2337 / dc20-SINT.
  7. 等. 妊娠期糖尿病 — 诊断, classification, 和 clinical care. 产科 和 妇科 Clinics of North America. 2017; doi:10.1016/j.[.2017.02.002.
  8. 等. Medical nutrition therapy for gestational diabetes mellitus based on Mediterranean Diet principles: A subanalysis of the St. Carlos GDM 预防 Study. BMJ Open Diabetes 研究 和 Care 2018; doi:10.1136/bmjdrc-2018-000550.

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