概述

头晕是一个术语,用来描述一系列的感觉, 如感觉头晕, 头昏眼花的, 弱或不稳定. 头晕 that creates the false sense that you or your surroundings are spinning or moving is called vertigo.

头晕 is one of the more common reasons adults visit their doctors. Frequent dizzy spells or constant 头晕 can significantly affect your life. 但眩晕很少意味着有生命危险.

晕眩的治疗方法取决于病因和症状. 这通常是有效的,但问题可能会复发.

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症状

People experiencing 头晕 may describe it as any of a number of sensations, such as:

  • 运动或旋转的错觉(眩晕)
  • 头晕或感到头晕
  • 不稳定或失去平衡
  • 昏昏沉沉的感觉飘浮、昏昏或沉重的感觉

These feelings may be triggered or worsened by walking, st和ing up or moving your head. Your 头晕 may be accompanied by nausea or be so 突然 or 严重的 that you need to sit or lie down. 这种症状可能持续数秒或数天,并可能复发.

什么时候去看医生

一般, 如果有复发,就去看医生, 突然, 严重的, 或长时间不明原因的头晕或眩晕.

如果你经历了新的事情,可以寻求紧急医疗救助, 严重头晕或眩晕,并伴有以下任何一种症状:

  • 突然,严重头痛
  • 胸部疼痛
  • 呼吸困难
  • 麻痹手臂或腿的麻木或麻痹
  • 晕倒
  • 复视
  • 心跳加快或不规则
  • 口齿不清,语无伦次
  • 步履蹒跚或行走困难
  • 持续的呕吐
  • 癫痫发作
  • 听力的突然变化
  • 面部麻木或无力

原因

眩晕有许多可能的原因, 包括内耳障碍, 晕车和药物作用. 有时是由潜在的健康状况引起的, 比如血液循环不良, 感染或损伤.

The way 头晕 makes you feel 和 your triggers provide clues for possible 原因. How long the 头晕 lasts 和 any other symptoms you have also help pinpoint the cause.

引起眩晕的内耳问题

Your sense of balance depends on the combined input from the various parts of your sensory system. 这些包括:

  • 眼睛 which help you determine where your body is in space 和 how it's moving
  • 感觉神经, 它向你的大脑发送关于身体动作和位置的信息
  • 内耳, which houses sensors that help detect gravity 和 back-和-forth motion

Vertigo is the false sense that your surroundings are spinning or moving. 内耳疾病患者, your brain receives signals from the inner ear that aren't consistent with what your eyes 和 sensory nerves are receiving. Vertigo is what results as your brain works to sort out the confusion.

  • 良性阵发性位置性眩晕(这). This condition 原因 an intense 和 brief but false sense that you're spinning or moving. 这些发作是由头部运动的快速变化引起的, 比如你在床上翻身的时候, 坐起来,否则头部会受到打击. 眩晕最常见的原因是什么.
  • 感染. 前庭神经的病毒感染, 叫做前庭神经炎, 会引起强烈的, 常数眩晕. 如果你也有突发性听力丧失,你可能有迷路炎.
  • 梅尼埃病(又名内耳眩晕病). This disease involves the excessive buildup of fluid in your inner ear. It's characterized by 突然 episodes of vertigo lasting as long as several hours. 你也可能经历波动性听力丧失, 耳鸣,感觉耳朵被塞住了.
  • 偏头痛. People who experience migraines may have episodes of vertigo or other types of 头晕 even when they're not having a 严重的 headache. Such vertigo episodes can last minutes to hours 和 may be associated with headache as well as light 和 noise sensitivity.

导致头晕的循环问题

You may feel dizzy, faint or off balance if your heart isn't pumping enough blood to your brain. 原因包括:

  • 血压下降. A dramatic drop in your systolic blood pressure — the higher number in your blood pressure reading — may result in brief lightheadedness or a feeling of faintness. 它可以发生在坐或站得太快之后. 这种情况也被称为直立性低血压.
  • 血液循环不畅. 如心肌病, 心脏病, 心律失常 和 transient ischemic attack could cause 头晕. And a decrease in blood volume may cause inadequate blood flow to your brain or inner ear.

眩晕的其他原因

  • 神经疾病. Some neurological disorders — such as Parkinson's disease 和 multiple sclerosis — can lead to progressive loss of balance.
  • 药物. 头晕 can be a side effect of certain medications — such as anti-seizure drugs, 抗抑郁药, 镇静剂和镇静剂. 特别是, blood pressure lowering medications may cause faintness if they lower your blood pressure too much.
  • 焦虑性障碍. Certain anxiety disorders may cause lightheadedness or a 头昏眼花的 feeling often referred to as 头晕. These include panic attacks 和 a fear of leaving home or being in large, open spaces (agoraphobia).
  • 铁含量低(贫血). Other signs 和 symptoms that may occur along with 头晕 if you have anemia include fatigue, 虚弱苍白的皮肤.
  • 低血糖(低血糖症). This condition generally occurs in people with diabetes who use insulin. 头晕 (lightheadedness) may be accompanied by sweating 和 anxiety.
  • 一氧化碳中毒. 症状 of carbon monoxide poisoning are often described as "flu-like" 和 include headache, 头晕, 弱点, 胃不舒服, 呕吐, 胸痛、神志不清.
  • 过热和脱水. 如果你在炎热的天气里活动,或者你没有喝足够的水, you may feel dizzy from overheating (hyperthermia) or from dehydration. 如果你服用某些心脏药物,这一点尤其正确.

风险因素

可能增加头晕风险的因素包括:

  • 年龄. Older adults are more likely to have medical conditions that cause 头晕, 尤其是一种不平衡感. They're also more likely to take medications that can cause 头晕.
  • 过去的头晕发作. If you've experienced 头晕 before, you're more likely to get dizzy in the future.

并发症

眩晕会增加你跌倒和受伤的风险. Experiencing 头晕 while driving a car or operating heavy machinery can increase the likelihood of an accident. You may also experience long-term consequences if an existing health condition that may be causing your 头晕 goes untreated.

10月. 15, 2020
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