Overview

尿崩症是一种罕见的疾病,它会导致体内液体失衡. 这种不平衡会导致你产生大量的尿液. 它也使你非常口渴,即使你有东西喝.

虽然“尿崩症”和“糖尿病”听起来很相似,但它们没有关系. 糖尿病——包括高血糖水平,可以发生在1型或2型——是一种常见的疾病,通常简称为糖尿病.

There's no cure for diabetes insipidus. 但治疗可以缓解你的口渴,减少你的排尿量,防止脱水.

Symptoms

Signs and symptoms of diabetes insipidus include:

  • Being extremely thirsty
  • Producing large amounts of pale urine
  • 夜间经常需要起来小便
  • Preferring cold drinks

如果你的情况很严重,你喝了很多液体, 你一天可以产生20夸脱(约19升)的尿液. 一个健康的成年人通常平均每天排尿1 - 2夸脱(约1 - 2升).

患有尿崩症的婴儿或幼儿可能有以下体征和症状:

  • Heavy, wet diapers
  • Bed-wetting
  • Trouble sleeping
  • Fever
  • Vomiting
  • Constipation
  • Delayed growth
  • Weight loss

When to see a doctor

如果你发现过度排尿和极度口渴,立即去看医生.

Causes

尿崩症发生在你的身体不能适当平衡体内液体水平的时候.

肾脏过滤血液中的液体部分,以清除废物. 大部分液体返回到血液,而废物和少量液体组成尿液. 尿液暂时储存在膀胱后从你的身体排出.

A hormone called anti-diuretic hormone (ADH), or vasopressin, 需要肾脏过滤的液体重新进入血液吗. ADH 是在大脑的下丘脑中产生并储存在脑下垂体中吗, a small gland found in the base of the brain. Conditions that cause a deficiency of ADH or block the effect of ADH result in production of excess urine.

如果你有尿崩症,你的身体不能适当地平衡液体水平. 病因取决于你患的尿崩症的类型. Types include:

  • Central diabetes insipidus. 手术对脑下垂体或下丘脑的损伤, a tumor, 头部损伤或疾病可通过影响正常生产而引起中枢性尿崩症, storage and release of ADH. 一种遗传疾病也会导致这种情况.
  • Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus. 肾源性尿崩症发生时,你的肾脏结构有缺陷,使你的肾脏无法正常反应 ADH.

    该缺陷可能是由于遗传疾病或慢性肾脏疾病. Certain drugs, 例如锂或抗病毒药物,如膦甲酸钠(Foscavir), also can cause nephrogenic diabetes insipidus.

  • Gestational diabetes insipidus. Gestational diabetes insipidus is rare. 它只发生在怀孕期间,当胎盘产生的酶被破坏时 ADH in the mother.
  • Primary polydipsia. Also known as dipsogenic diabetes insipidus, 这种情况会导致饮用过量液体而产生大量稀释的尿液.

    原发性多饮可由下丘脑的口渴调节机制受损引起. 这种情况也与精神疾病有关,如精神分裂症.

有时尿崩症并无明显病因. However, in some people, 这种疾病可能是由于自身免疫反应导致免疫系统破坏产生抗利尿激素的细胞.

Risk factors

在出生时或出生后不久出现的肾源性尿崩症通常有一种遗传原因,它会永久改变肾脏集中尿液的能力. Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus usually affects males, though women can pass the gene on to their children.

Complications

Dehydration

Diabetes insipidus may lead to dehydration. Dehydration can cause:

  • Dry mouth
  • Changes in skin elasticity
  • Thirst
  • Fatigue

Electrolyte imbalance

尿崩症会导致血液中的矿物质失衡, such as sodium and potassium (electrolytes), that maintain the fluid balance in your body. Symptoms of an electrolyte imbalance may include:

  • Weakness
  • Nausea
  • Vomiting
  • Loss of appetite
  • Muscle cramps
  • Confusion

April 10, 2021
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