Overview

A brain tumor is a mass or growth of abnormal cells in your brain.

Many different types of brain tumors exist. 有些脑瘤是非恶性的(良性的),有些脑瘤是恶性的(恶性的). Brain tumors can begin in your brain (primary brain tumors), 或者癌症可以从身体的其他部位开始,然后扩散到大脑,成为继发性(转移性)脑瘤.

How quickly a brain tumor grows can vary greatly. 脑瘤的生长速度和位置决定了它将如何影响你的神经系统功能.

Brain tumor treatment options depend on the type of brain tumor you have, 以及它的大小和位置.

什么是脑瘤? 一位梅奥诊所的专家解释道

Learn more about brain tumors from neuro-oncologist Alyx Porter, M.D.

I'm Dr. Alyx Porter, a neuro-oncologist at Mayo Clinic. In this video, we'll cover the basics of brain tumors: 什么是脑瘤? Who gets it? The symptoms, diagnosis and treatment. Whether you're looking for answers for yourself or someone you love, we are here to give you the best information available. First, let's talk about what a brain tumor is. DNA告诉竞博竞猜的细胞该做什么. Sometimes this DNA mutates and tells cells to duplicate abnormally, dividing rapidly and living longer than healthy cells are supposed to. These cells collect into a mass, in this case, in various parts of the brain. And since the brain is the control center for the rest of our bodies, this can affect all kinds of other functions. There are many kinds of brain tumors. 有些是良性的或良性的. In other words, it's an overgrowth of cells that produces a mass. But the cells themselves are normal. 有些是恶性的或癌变的. 这意味着肿块是由异常细胞组成的,这些细胞将继续扩散并侵入其他组织. 起源于大脑或周围组织的肿瘤被称为原发性脑肿瘤. More often, 这种肿瘤被称为继发性或转移性脑肿瘤,是身体其他部位的癌症扩散到大脑的结果.

We often just don't know why primary brain tumors form. Statistically, in adults, age increases your risk of having a primary brain tumor. And they are more common in women than men. 暴露于某些类型的辐射,包括之前的癌症治疗,会增加你的风险. And there are some rare inherited syndromes that seem related to brain tumor development. But they're not really predictable nor preventable. 说到继发性肿瘤,竞博竞猜知道它们是从身体其他部位的癌症转移过来的. And the cause of that original cancer, 这取决于它是从哪里开始的, could have resulted from genetic or external factors. 这种情况并不常见,但有时脑瘤可能是其他地方癌症的第一个迹象.

通常,脑瘤的第一个症状是头痛,通常伴有其他症状. 这些可能包括:癫痫发作, 思考或说话困难, 性格变化, anxiety, depression, 定向障碍, fatigue, 眼球运动异常, numbness or tingling on one side of the body, 身体一侧虚弱, 失去平衡, 视觉变化, memory loss, nausea, 广义的痛苦, 吞咽困难, 麻烦走, 脸的一侧耷拉着, 食欲不振, weight loss, 还有口齿不清. 这并不意味着如果你有头痛,甚至还有其他症状,你就得了脑瘤. But if you notice a headache that awakens you from sleep, that seems to be at its worst in the early morning hours, 伴随着你的视力变暗, this could be a sign of increased intracranial pressure. And you should make an appointment with your doctor.

有各种各样的测试和程序,你的医生可能会建议确定你的症状的原因. First, you will most likely be given a neurological examination. 这将评估你的视觉、听觉、平衡、协调、力量、感觉和反应. 他们可能会建议做影像学检查, such as an MRI or a CAT scan or a PET scan, to get a clearer picture of the brain. 如果检测到肿瘤, a surgical procedure may be done to determine the nature of the mass or its type.

Although a brain tumor diagnosis can be overwhelming and scary, 要知道在这个领域有专家会和你一起为你的个人情况找出最佳的策略. 所以你能做的最重要的事情就是找到一个感觉很合适的专业治疗中心,征求第二个甚至第三个意见. 重要的是,当你们一起战斗时,对你的护理团队和他们的支持有信心. Treatment depends on a lot of factors: the type, size, 以及肿瘤的位置, as well as your overall health and personal preferences. 您和您的护理团队将合作,为未来的最佳生活质量规划一条路线. If the tumor is in a place where removal is a viable option, surgery may be recommended to take out as much of the mass as possible. 即使整个东西不能安全取出,去除一部分也可以帮助缓解症状. 另一种可能是辐射. There are a few different forms of delivery, but all use high-energy radiation to target and destroy cancerous cells. 有化疗, in which powerful drugs that combat cancer cells are taken either orally or through an IV. For certain kinds of cancer, targeted drug therapy may also be an option. These blocks specific abnormalities within the cancer cells, causing them to die. 你可能有资格参加临床试验,也有资格参加有希望的实验措施. 你的医生可以帮助指导你,并向你推荐这似乎是最好的行动计划. All of these treatments have side effects - some quite severe. These can include issues with memory and thinking, 运动技能, vision, and speech, as well as other physical or emotional symptoms. 你的医生可以建议一个支持性和姑息治疗的疗程,以帮助你完成治疗本身. In addition, 物理治疗, 语言治疗, 职业治疗, and, in children, 辅导可能是必要的.

在准备预约时, make sure you are aware of any pre-appointment restrictions, 比如饮食. Write down your symptoms - even things that may seem unrelated. Write down any recent life changes or major stressors. Make a list of your medications and any other supplements. 写下你的问题,带一个朋友或亲戚一起来帮助你记住医生说的话. While each person's prognosis and treatment can differ greatly, huge strides have been made in the field overall. And our understanding continues to grow, 为您的专业医疗团队提供一套不断扩展的工具,帮助您度过这段艰难的旅程,同时保持可控和积极的生活质量. If you'd like to learn even more about brain tumors, 观看竞博竞猜其他相关视频, 或者参观whitleybiz.com. 竞博竞猜祝你一切顺利.

Types

Symptoms

脑瘤的体征和症状变化很大,取决于脑瘤的大小, 位置和增长速度.

General signs and symptoms caused by brain tumors may include:

  • New onset or change in pattern of headaches
  • Headaches that gradually become more frequent and more severe
  • 不明原因的恶心或呕吐
  • Vision problems, such as blurred vision, double vision or loss of peripheral vision
  • Gradual loss of sensation or movement in an arm or a leg
  • 平衡感困难
  • 讲话困难
  • 感觉很累
  • 日常生活中的困惑
  • 做决定困难
  • Inability to follow simple commands
  • 性格或行为的改变
  • Seizures, especially in someone who doesn't have a history of seizures
  • 听力问题

什么时候去看医生

如果你有持续的症状和体征,请与你的医生预约.

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Causes

Brain tumors that begin in the brain

Primary brain tumors originate in the brain itself or in tissues close to it, such as in the brain-covering membranes (meninges), 颅神经, 脑下垂体或松果腺.

Primary brain tumors begin when normal cells develop changes (mutations) in their DNA. A cell's DNA contains the instructions that tell a cell what to do. 突变告诉细胞快速生长和分裂,并在健康细胞死亡时继续存活. The result is a mass of abnormal cells, which forms a tumor.

In adults, primary brain tumors are much less common than are secondary brain tumors, in which cancer begins elsewhere and spreads to the brain.

Many different types of primary brain tumors exist. Each gets its name from the type of cells involved. 例子包括:

  • Gliomas. These tumors begin in the brain or spinal cord and include astrocytomas, ependymomas, 恶性胶质瘤, oligoastrocytomas and oligodendrogliomas.
  • Meningiomas. 脑膜瘤是一种肿瘤,起源于环绕大脑和脊髓的膜(脑膜). 大多数脑膜瘤是良性的.
  • 听神经瘤(神经鞘瘤). 这些良性肿瘤生长在从内耳到大脑控制平衡和听力的神经上.
  • 垂体腺瘤. These are tumors that develop in the pituitary gland at the base of the brain. These tumors can affect the pituitary hormones with effects throughout the body.
  • 成神经管细胞瘤. 这些恶性脑瘤在儿童中最常见,尽管它们可能发生在任何年龄. 成髓细胞瘤始于大脑的下背部,并倾向于通过脊髓液扩散.
  • 生殖细胞瘤. 生殖细胞瘤 may develop during childhood where the testicles or ovaries will form. But sometimes germ cell tumors affect other parts of the body, such as the brain.
  • 适应证. These rare tumors start near the brain's pituitary gland, which secretes hormones that control many body functions. As the craniopharyngioma slowly grows, it can affect the pituitary gland and other structures near the brain.

Cancer that begins elsewhere and spreads to the brain

继发性(转移性)脑瘤是由身体其他部位的癌症引起的肿瘤,然后扩散(转移)到大脑.

Secondary brain tumors most often occur in people who have a history of cancer. 极少数情况下,转移性脑瘤可能是癌症始于身体其他部位的第一个迹象.

In adults, secondary brain tumors are far more common than are primary brain tumors.

Any cancer can spread to the brain, but common types include:

  • 乳腺癌
  • 结肠癌
  • 肾癌
  • 肺癌
  • Melanoma

风险因素

In most people with primary brain tumors, the cause of the tumor isn't clear. But doctors have identified some factors that may increase your risk of a brain tumor.

风险因素包括:

  • 受到辐射. 暴露在一种叫做电离辐射的辐射下的人患脑瘤的风险增加. 电离辐射的例子包括用于治疗癌症的放射疗法和原子弹引起的辐射暴露.
  • 脑瘤家族史. 一小部分脑瘤发生在有脑瘤家族史或有增加脑瘤风险的遗传综合征家族史的人群中.

梅奥诊所的脑瘤治疗

Aug. 06, 2021
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