概述

房室管缺损 is a mix of problems affecting the center of the heart. 心脏问题在出生时就存在. 说明这是先天性心脏缺陷. Children born with this condition have a hole in the wall between the heart's chambers. They also have problems with the valves that control blood flow in the heart.

房室管缺损 allows extra blood to flow to the lungs. The extra blood forces the heart to work too hard, causing the heart muscle to grow larger.

未经处理的, atrioventricular canal defect can cause heart failure and high blood pressure in the lungs. Treatment usually involves surgery during the first year of life to close the hole in the heart and to repair the valves.

这种情况的其他名称是:

  • 房室间隔缺损
  • 心内膜软垫缺损

症状

房室管缺损 can involve only the two upper chambers of the heart or all four chambers. 在这两种情况下,额外的血液会流入肺部. 症状取决于缺陷是部分缺陷还是完全缺陷.

完整的缺陷

这种情况影响到心脏的所有腔室. 症状 of a complete atrioventricular canal defect usually develop in the first weeks of life. 症状一般与心力衰竭相似. 它们可能包括:

  • 低氧导致皮肤呈蓝色或灰色
  • 呼吸困难或呼吸急促
  • 过度出汗
  • 乏力
  • 心跳不规则或快速
  • 食欲不振
  • 增重不佳
  • 腿部,脚踝和脚部肿胀
  • 喘息

部分缺陷

这种情况只影响两个上心房. 症状 of a partial atrioventricular canal defect may not appear until early adulthood. The symptoms may be due to complications such as heart valve problems, 肺部高血压或心脏衰竭. 症状可能包括:

  • 疲劳和虚弱
  • 恶心,食欲不振
  • 持续的咳嗽或喘息
  • 心跳过快或不规则,也称为心律失常
  • 运动能力下降
  • 呼吸急促(气促)
  • 腿部,脚踝和脚部肿胀
  • 胸部压力或疼痛

原因

房室管缺损 occurs before birth when a baby's heart is developing. 专家们不确定原因. 患有唐氏综合症可能会增加患病风险.

心脏是如何工作的

To understand congenital heart defects, it may be helpful to know how the heart typically works.

心脏分为室. 上面的两个腔室叫做心房. 这两个下腔叫做心室.

The right side of the heart moves blood into vessels that lead to the lungs, 血液在哪里接受氧气. The oxygen-rich blood flows back to the heart's left side and into the body's main artery, 叫做主动脉. 血液从那里流向身体的其他部位.

瓣膜控制血液流入和流出心室. These heart valves open to let blood in and close to keep blood from flowing backward.

房室管缺损会发生什么

部分房室管缺损:

  • 在上部心室之间的心脏壁上有个洞.
  • 三尖瓣和二尖瓣也有变化.
  • 这些变化可以防止阀门一直关闭.
  • 血液可以通过不规则的瓣膜开口以错误的方式流动.
  • The mitral valve between the upper and lower left chambers is most often affected.

房室管完全缺损:

  • 心脏中心有个大洞. The hole is where the walls between the upper and the lower chambers meet.
  • 富氧和贫氧的血液通过小孔混合.
  • There's one large valve between the heart's upper and lower chambers, instead of separate ones.
  • Blood leaks through the one large valve into the lower heart chambers.
  • 心脏必须更加努力地泵血. 心脏变大了.

风险因素

Things that might increase the risk of atrioventricular canal defect include:

  • 遗传学. 先天性心脏病似乎有家族遗传. 它与许多遗传综合征有关. For instance, children with Down syndrome often have heart problems present at birth.
  • 德国麻疹,也叫风疹. Having rubella during pregnancy may affect how the baby's heart develops while in the womb.
  • 糖尿病. Poorly controlled diabetes during pregnancy may affect a baby's heart development. Gestational diabetes generally doesn't increase the risk of 先天性心脏病.
  • 使用酒精. Drinking alcohol while pregnant has been linked to an increased risk of heart defects in the baby.
  • 吸烟. 如果你吸烟,戒烟. 吸烟 during pregnancy increases the risk of congenital heart defects in the baby.
  • 一些药物. Taking certain medications while pregnant may cause heart problems and other birth defects in the baby. 一定要告诉你的医疗保健人员你正在服用的药物.

并发症

房室管缺损可能的并发症包括:

  • 心脏扩张. Increased blood flow through the heart forces it to work harder than normal, 导致它变大.
  • 肺部有高血压. 这种情况也被称为肺动脉高压. A hole in the heart lets oxygen-rich blood mix with oxygen-poor blood. 肺部的血液过多. 肺部压力增加.
  • 呼吸道感染. 心脏穿孔会导致反复肺部感染.
  • 心脏衰竭. 如果房室管缺损不治疗, 心脏不能泵出足够的血液来满足身体的需要.

Treatment greatly improves the outlook for children with atrioventricular canal defect. 但并发症仍可能发生在生命的后期. 它们可能包括:

  • 肺部损伤导致呼吸问题
  • 心律失常
  • 心脏瓣膜漏,也叫瓣膜反流
  • 心脏瓣膜变窄

怀孕

Those who had atrioventricular canal defect surgery before permanent lung damage occurred are often able to have a successful pregnancy. 怀孕 is not recommended if you had serious heart or lung damage before atrioventricular canal defect surgery.

怀孕前, talk to a heart doctor trained in 先天性心脏病 about the possible risks and complications. This type of care provider is called an adult congenital cardiologist. Together you can discuss and plan for any special care needed during pregnancy.

9月. 13, 2022
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