概述

心绞痛(an-JIE-nuh或AN-juh-nuh)是一种由流向心脏的血液减少引起的胸痛. Angina is a symptom of coronary artery disease.

心绞痛又称心绞痛.

心绞痛常被描述为胸部的挤压、压迫、沉重、紧绷或疼痛. It may feel like a heavy weight lying on the chest. Angina may be a new pain that needs to be checked by a health care provider, or recurring pain that goes away with 治疗.

虽然心绞痛比较常见, it can still be hard to distinguish from other types of chest pain, 如消化不良的不适. If you have unexplained chest pain, seek medical help right away.

Types

心绞痛有不同的类型. 其类型取决于病因,以及是否休息或药物可以缓解症状.

  • 稳定心绞痛. 稳定心绞痛 is the most common form of angina. 它通常发生在活动(用力)时,休息或服用心绞痛药物后消失. 例如,当你上山或在寒冷的天气里行走时出现的疼痛可能是心绞痛.

    稳定型心绞痛是可预测的,通常类似于以前的胸痛发作. The chest pain typically lasts a short time, perhaps five minutes or less.

  • 不稳定型心绞痛(医疗急救). Unstable angina is unpredictable and occurs at rest. Or the angina pain is worsening and occurs with less physical effort. 它通常很严重,持续时间比稳定型心绞痛长,可能20分钟或更长. The pain doesn't go away with rest or the usual angina medications. 如果血液流动没有改善,心脏就会缺氧,心脏病就会发作. Unstable angina is dangerous and requires emergency 治疗.
  • 变异性心绞痛(Prinzmetal心绞痛). 变异性心绞痛,也叫Prinzmetal心绞痛,不是由于冠状动脉疾病. 它是由心脏动脉痉挛引起的,暂时减少了血液流动. Severe chest pain is the main symptom of variant angina. It most often occurs in cycles, typically at rest and overnight. The pain may be relieved by angina medication.
  • 难治性心绞痛. 心绞痛发作频繁,尽管结合药物治疗和生活方式的改变.

症状

Angina symptoms include chest pain and discomfort. The chest pain or discomfort may feel like:

  • 燃烧
  • 饱腹感
  • 压力
  • 挤压

Pain may also be felt in the arms, neck, jaw, shoulder or back.

心绞痛的其他症状包括:

  • 头晕
  • 乏力
  • Nausea
  • 呼吸急促(气促)
  • 出汗

The severity, duration and type of angina can vary. 新的或不同的症状可能预示着一种更危险的心绞痛(不稳定型心绞痛)或心脏病发作.

任何新的或恶化的心绞痛症状需要立即由医疗保健提供者评估,他们可以确定你是稳定型心绞痛还是不稳定型心绞痛.

女性心绞痛

女性心绞痛的症状可能不同于典型的心绞痛症状. These differences may lead to delays in seeking 治疗. 例如, chest pain is a common symptom in women with angina, but it may not be the only symptom or the most prevalent symptom for women. 女性还可能出现以下症状:

  • Discomfort in the neck, jaw, teeth or back
  • Nausea
  • 呼吸急促(气促)
  • 刺痛而不是胸部压迫
  • 胃痛

什么时候去看医生

如果你的胸痛持续超过几分钟,休息或服用心绞痛药物后也没有消失, it may be a sign you're having a heart attack. 拨打911或紧急医疗救助. 如果没有其他交通选择,只能自己开车去医院.

If chest discomfort is a new symptom for you, 重要的是要去看你的医疗保健提供者,以确定原因,并得到适当的治疗. If you've been diagnosed with stable angina and it gets worse or changes, 立即寻求医疗帮助.

从梅奥诊所到你的收件箱

免费注册, and stay up to date on research advancements, 健康提示和当前健康话题, 像竞博竞猜网站, 还有健康管理方面的专业知识.

为您提供最相关和最有帮助的信息,并了解其中 信息是有益的,竞博竞猜可能会结合您的电子邮件和网站使用信息 竞博竞猜有关于你的其他信息. If you are a 梅奥诊所 patient, this could 包括受保护的健康信息. If we combine this information with your protected 健康信息,竞博竞猜将把所有这些信息视为受保护的健康信息 信息,并只会使用或披露在竞博竞猜的通知中规定的信息 隐私惯例. You may opt-out of email communications at any time by clicking on 电子邮件中的退订链接.

Causes

Angina is caused by reduced blood flow to the heart muscle. Blood carries oxygen, which the heart muscle needs to survive. 当心肌得不到足够的氧气时,就会导致缺血.

心肌血流减少的最常见原因是冠状动脉疾病(CAD)。. 心脏(冠状动脉)会被称为斑块的脂肪沉积变窄. 这就是动脉粥样硬化.

If plaques in a blood vessel rupture or a blood clot forms, it can quickly block or reduce flow through a narrowed artery. This can suddenly and severely decrease blood flow to the heart muscle.

During times of low oxygen demand — when resting, 例如,心肌可能仍然能够在减少血流量的情况下工作,而不会引发心绞痛症状. 但当对氧气的需求上升时,比如在运动时,就会导致心绞痛.

风险因素

The following things may increase the risk of angina:

  • 年龄增加. Angina is most common in adults age 60 and older.
  • 家族心脏病史. Tell your health care provider if your mother, father or any siblings have or had heart disease or a heart attack.
  • 烟草的使用. 吸烟, 嚼烟草和长期吸二手烟会损害动脉内膜, allowing deposits of cholesterol to collect and block blood flow.
  • 糖尿病. 糖尿病 increases the risk of coronary artery disease, 通过加速动脉粥样硬化和增加胆固醇水平导致心绞痛和心脏病发作.
  • 高血压. 随着时间的推移,高血压会加速动脉硬化,从而损害动脉.
  • 高胆固醇或甘油三酯. 血液中过多的有害胆固醇——低密度脂蛋白(LDL)会导致动脉狭窄. A high LDL increases the risk of angina and heart attacks. A high level of triglycerides in the blood also is unhealthy.
  • 其他健康状况. 慢性肾病, 外周动脉疾病, metabolic syndrome or a history of stroke increases the risk of angina.
  • 锻炼不够. An inactive lifestyle contributes to high cholesterol, 高血压, 2型糖尿病和肥胖症. 和你的医疗保健人员谈谈最适合你的运动类型和运动量.
  • 肥胖. 肥胖 is a risk factor for heart disease, which can cause angina. Being overweight makes the heart work harder to supply blood to the body.
  • 情绪压力. Too much stress and anger can raise blood pressure. 压力下产生的荷尔蒙激增会使动脉变窄,使心绞痛恶化.
  • 药物. 收缩血管的药物,如一些偏头痛药物,可能引发Prinzmetal心绞痛.
  • 滥用药物. 可卡因和其他兴奋剂可引起血管痉挛并引发心绞痛.
  • 低温. Exposure to cold temperatures can trigger Prinzmetal angina.

并发症

The chest pain that occurs with angina can make doing some activities, 比如走路, 不舒服. However, the most dangerous complication is a heart attack.

Warning signs and symptoms of a heart attack include:

  • 压力, 胸部中央的充盈或挤压痛,持续超过几分钟
  • 疼痛从胸部延伸到肩膀、手臂、背部,甚至牙齿和下巴
  • 晕倒
  • 即将来临的厄运感
  • 胸痛发作次数增加
  • 恶心呕吐
  • Continued pain in the upper belly area (abdomen)
  • 呼吸急促(气促)
  • 出汗

如果你有任何这些症状,立即寻求紧急医疗救助.

预防

你可以通过改变治疗心绞痛的生活方式来预防心绞痛. 这些包括:

  • 不吸烟.
  • 健康饮食.
  • 避免或限制饮酒.
  • 定期锻炼.
  • 保持健康体重.
  • Managing other health conditions related to heart disease.
  • 减少压力.
  • Getting recommended vaccines to avoid heart complications.

2022年3月30日
  1. Bonow RO,等., eds. 稳定性缺血性心脏病. In: Braunwald's Heart Disease: A Textbook of Cardiovascular Medicine. 12日艾德. Elsevier; 2022. http://www.clinicalkey.com. 12月访问. 21, 2021.
  2. 高德曼L等., eds. 心绞痛 and stable ischemic heart disease. 在:高盛-塞西尔医药. 26日艾德. Elsevier; 2020. http://www.clinicalkey.com. 12月访问. 23, 2021.
  3. Angina. National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov /健康话题/心绞痛. 12月访问. 21, 2021.
  4. 女性心绞痛 can be different than men. 美国心脏协会. http://www.heart.org/en/health-topics/heart-attack/angina-chest-pain/angina-in-women-can-be-different-than-men. 12月访问. 21, 2021.
  5. 心脏病发作的警告信号. 美国心脏协会. http://www.heart.org/en/health-topics/heart-attack/warning-signs-of-a-heart-attack/heart-attack-symptoms-in-women. 12月访问. 21, 2021.
  6. AskMayoExpert. 稳定性缺血性心脏病. 梅奥诊所; 2020.
  7. Simons M,等. 心绞痛的新疗法. http://www.最新式的.com/contents/search. 12月访问. 21, 2021.
  8. 曼卡德R(专家意见). 梅奥诊所. Feb. 24, 2020.
  9. 费理FF. 心绞痛. 纳入:2022年Ferri的临床顾问. Elsevier; 2022. http://www.clinicalkey.com. 12月访问. 23, 2021.
  10. 洛佩兹-希门尼斯F(专家意见). 梅奥诊所. Jan. 21, 2022.